BOUNDARIES AND TEPOGRAPHY OF THE DISTRICT:
Annamayya District is the extreme south eastern district of Andhra Pradesh situated within the geographical co-ordinate of 13° 19’ 55” and 14° 42’ 32” of northern latitude and 78° 18’ 55” and 79° 20’26” Eastern longitude. The latitude varies from 269 to 3787 meters above sea level. The District is bounded on North by YSR Kadapa District, South by Chittoor District West by Anantapur District and East by Nellore and Chittoor Districts.
Total Geographical area of the District is 7,951 Sq.Kms. with 3 Revenue Divisions, 30 mandals, 462 Gram Panchayats, 463 Revenue Villages and 5,673 Habitations. As per the 2011 Census the population of the District is 16,97,308 of which the Rural Population is 13,05,797 and the Urban Population is 3,91,511. The density of population in the District is 213 per Sq.Km. The Scheduled Castes Population is 2,29,601 and Scheduled Tribes Population is 62,475 in the District.
The total geographical area of Annamayya District is 7,95,126 hectares which constitutes an extent of forest is 1,62,692 hectares, Barren & Uncultivable land is 1,24,111 hectares, Land put to Non-agricultural uses is 84,311 hectares, Cultivable Waste is 27,056 hectares, Permanent Pastures and other grazing lands is 16,151 hectares, Land under Miscellaneous Tree crops & Groves not included in net area sown is 12,834 hectares, Current Fallows is 1,06,382 hectares, Other Fallow land is 1,07,748 hectares,Total Cropped Area is 1,71,617 hectares and Net Area Sown is 1,54,649 hectares and area sown more than once is 16,968 hectares during the year 2019-20
A. Palakonda Hills: The second hill range called the Palakonda hills or Seshachalam hills formed of massive quartzite interbeded with slates and lavas also shoot forth into the district from the southern knot of the district and run along the western border of Rajampet taluk, till this range forks itself into two–one fork running towards North and the other towards West. The western fork is called Palakonda or Seshachalam hills. It is in this range near Vempalle that we have the beautiful gorge called the “Vempalle Gundy” of Ramayana fame where the River Papagni cuts through the range.
Nallamalais And Lankamalais: The northern fork of the hill range now called Nallamalais and Lankamalais run towards North along the boundary line dividing Kadapa and Sidhout taluks and then to Proddattur taluk to emerge into Kurnool district. The Nallamalais are covered by fairly thick forests and abound in wild animals. Generally, the hill ranges average a height of 2,500 to 3,000 feet.
Cheyyeru: Cheyyeru river joins Penneru at Gundlamada in Vontimitta mandal. Cheyyeru gathers water from its three tributaries and runs through the Balarajupalle gorge. The river flows out of Rajampetmandal near Ellampeta of Nandalurmandal. The rivulet flowing through Rajampettaluk joins it at Narasingarajupuram.
The indiscriminate exploitation of wild life has reduced the game in this District considerably. The Bonnet monkey (MacacaRadiata) the Madras Langur is commonly found in this District. The Tiger can still be seen in the interior areas of Nallamalas, Lankamalas, Palakonda-Seshachalam and Velikonda forest. Panther or Leopard occurs in appreciable numbers in the reserved forests over the Nallamalas, Lankamalas, Palakonda-Seshachalams and Velikonda. The other animals found in this District are the Mungoose, Jackal, Fox, Wolves, Wild dogs, Bear, the Malabar squirrel, Porcupine, the Indian Antelope, Indian Gazelle, Blue Bull, Sambar, Deer and Spotted Deer & wild pigs, etc. Among the AVIFAUNA the GREY PARTRIDGE (KAMJU) and the quail V
especially the Jungle Bush-Quail and the Button Quail can be seen in the open forests and the countryside. The Jungle Fowl, the Dove, Pigeon, Wild Goose, etc., are the other common birds found in this District.
The Soils in the District are of two types i.e., RED FERRUGINOUS and BLACK SOILS. Black Clay is the most superior soil in the District, which occupies 23.7% area in the District.
The District is rich in Mineral value. The Major Minerals in the District are Barytes, Lime Stone and Asbestos. Apart from Major Minerals, Minor minerals are Napa Slabs, Road Metal, Building Stone, Marble, Mosaic Chips and Rehmatti are also in the District.
The year is divided into four seasons. The period from December to February is the dry and comparatively cool season. The summer seasons starts from March and lasts till May. May is the hottest month of the year. This is followed by the South-West monsoon from June to September, October and December constitute the post monsoon or North East monsoon season.
The average annual rainfall in the District is 738.5 mm. The rainfall generally increases from the North-West to the South-East in the District. The rainy season starts from June and lasts till November. October is the month having highest rainfall than the normal. The rainfall in South-west monsoon period is most important for the sowings of dry crops viz., Groundnut, Redgram, etc..in the District which covers 75% of the total cropped area.
The Majority of the people in the district are depending onAgriculture only. The major crops in the district are Paddy, Groundnut,Sunflower, Cotton, BetelLeaves and Horticultural crops like Mango, Papaya,Banana, Lemon and Sweet Orange. The gross cropped area in the District is 3,18,582 hectares, out of this, gross irrigated area is 1,51,539 hectares during 2019-20.
The Major Source of Irrigation in the district is under Pincha project. There is a Major Irrigation sources Viz.,Pincha Project Annamayya Project, are providing water to crops in the District.
The District has been served by 2072 Primary Schools, 407 Upper Primary Schools, 581 High Schools, 119 Junior Colleges, 61 Degree Colleges and Yogi Vemana University offering P.G. courses for general education.For Technical education the District has 6Polytechnics and 8 Engineering colleges, one Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical sciences, one Dental college, one Homoeopathic Medical college,oneVeterinary college and one IIIT centre at Rajiv Knowledge Valley.
The District has 8 large scale and medium scale industries with an investment of Rs.3310.01crores providing employement 161. The District has 75 small scale units functioning and employing 1,06,646 persons with an investment of Rs. 6,666.25 Cr.
E. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS:
The District is having broad-gauge railway line 195.13 Kms. There are 24Railway Stations covering 13 Mandals. The District has 327.59Kms of State Highway and 330.46 KMs of National Highway. All the 32 Mandal Head Quarters are served by pucca roads with bus facilities and the A.P. State High Way Project links Kadapa to Renigunta&Tirupati.
The establishment of Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station with capacity of 1650 M.K.W. has become one of the major power generation in the state generating 7692.61 Million K.W.H